Robert R. Long (MDiv ’69, Honorary DDiv ’93)
- Robert R. Long, age 82, went to be with the Lord on Friday, October 13th in Pittsburgh, PA. Robert attended Sharon High School, University of Pittsburgh, and Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary where he received a Master of Divinity (’69) and an Honorary Doctor of Divinity (’93). A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Robert C. Bradbury, Jr. (MDiv ’77)
- Robert C. Bradbury, Jr., age 74, went to be with the Lord peacefully on Saturday, October 7, 2023 at the Pat Roche Hospice Home in Hingham, surrounded by his loving family. He served as a minister and pastor in various greater Boston churches for many years, most recently as associate pastor of the First Church in Weymouth. He loved his ministry of caring for others and thoroughly enjoyed spending time with his family and close friends. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
William Davis Milligan (MDiv ’68)
- William Davis Milligan, age 80, went to be with his Lord on Tuesday, October 3, 2023. He lived a life of service and integrity, and was known for preaching God’s Word as he worked in seven different churches, and started many long-lasting programs throughout his 50 years of public ministry. He will also be remembered for his passion for traveling, camping, biking, and reading with his friends and family. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
John Clifton (MACH ’02)
- John Howard Clifton, age 70, went to be with his Lord on Sunday, September 3, 2023. John’s dedication to his faith was unwavering. He served as a priest of the Church of CEC, providing guidance and spiritual support to his congregation for many years. John was also the driving force behind the Prince of Peace homeschooling enrichment program for young learners. He was an avid reader with an insatiable appetite for knowledge. As a priest and pastor, John lived the gospel he preached. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Timothy J. Keller (MDiv ’75)
- With sadness in our hearts, we nonetheless rejoice that our friend Tim Keller has gone to be with Jesus. Timothy J. Keller lived with the conviction that the Gospel was more powerful than all the principalities and powers of this world. Tim received his pastoral training in the early 1970s and met his life-long soul mate and wife, Kathy, at Gordon-Conwell. Tim then went on to be a prominent author, pastor, and teacher; Tim was one of the Gospel’s most articulate, gracious and forceful voices of our lifetimes. In his final years, Tim taught a year-long preaching course in New York City that encapsulated many of his core values. He is survived by his wife, children, and loving family. See Gordon-Conwell’s press release dedicated to his memory here.
Christine D. Pohl (MATS ’86)
- Christine Dorothy Pohl passed away peacefully on June 5, 2023. After receiving her master’s from Gordon-Conwell and her doctorate from Emory, Christine spent her entire teaching career at Asbury Theological Seminary before retiring in 2018. Her first book, Making Room: Recovering Hospitality as a Christian Tradition (1999), is widely credited with re-establishing hospitality as a subject of theological inquiry. She then went on to author many books, numerous contributions to academic journals, popular media outlets, and anthologies. Christine was a deeply committed Christian, a renowned scholar, an active member of her community, and a loving daughter, sister, aunt, great-aunt, and friend. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Rodney Whitacre (MTS ’76)
- Rodney Alan Whitacre, 73, of Sewickley, went to be with the Lord on Monday, May 22, 2023, surrounded by loving family. An avid lover of God’s Word, Rod was director of the New Testament Greek program at Gordon-Conwell before his time as New Testament professor at Trinity School for Ministry. He authored a commentary on the Gospel of John, along with several Greek textbooks, and was a well-loved teacher, counselor and mentor until his retirement in 2015. Rod was also an ordained priest in the Reformed Episcopal Church. He is survived by his wife, Margaret, sons and daughter in law, brothers, and grandchildren. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
David E. Wuori (MDiv ’68, DMin ’86)
- David E. Wuori, 84, died Tuesday, April 25, 2023 at StoneRidge Poplar Run, Myerstown. Husband of Evelyn M. Wuori, David was ordained to the Christian ministry on November 19, 1967 and served as pastor with the Elm Street Congregational Church, Fitchburg, MA from 1967-1976 and 1981-1987. He enjoyed traveling with his wife to Finland, Israel, Greece, Great Britain, as well as summers at the family cottage. David enjoyed painting and Theological Bible study. He is survived by his children, Steven D, Barbara M., Lisa R, and several grandchildren, nieces, and nephews. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Rev. Dr. Patrick R. Novak McDowell (MDiv ’76)
- Patrick R. Novak of San Jose, California, died on February 8, 2020, after a brief battle with cancer. In his youth, Patrick served one tour in Vietnam from 1966-1971 as Sergeant in the USMC. After receiving his MDiv from Gordon Conwell, Patrick earned his DMin at Andover Newton and his PhD at Trinity Seminary. Pat’s passion was to preach the Good News of the gospel and bring others into relationship with Christ. which was fulfilled throughout his pastorate in MA, CT, and CA. Pat is survived by his wife, Norma, daughters and sons-in-law, six grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Lucinda Secrest McDowell (MTS ’80)
- Lucinda Secrest McDowell died peacefully surrounded by her family after a month-long journey with cancer. After graduating Furman University and Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, Cindy served as Missions Pastor in Menlo Park, CA, and then as Director of Caring Ministries in Wethersfield, CT. Lucinda was the co-director of reNEW: a retreat for New England Writing & Speaking. She was also a member of the Redbud Writers Guild and the AWSA. Her mission was to communicate God’s faithfulness, extend His grace, and encourage others to trust him fully. She is survived by her husband, Michael; her sisters, Cathy and Susan; her children, Justin, Fina, and Maggie, and beloved family. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Meredith J. Baker (MATS ’90)
- Meredith J. Baker, age 59, of Rockland, formerly of Braintree, died in the comfort of her loving family on March 29. Born in Quincy, Meredith graduated Gordon College before graduating from Gordon-Conwell for her master’s degree. She worked in higher education at Eastern Nazarene College and Berklee College of Music. Meredith also continued serving in various ministries in the South Shore. During healthier times she was an avid tennis player. Meredith is survived by her father, Walter; her siblings, Walter, Edward, Derelyn, and Glenn; their beloved spouses, and beloved nephews and nieces. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
George Walter Harper Jr. (MDiv ’83)
- George Walter Harper Jr. went to be with the Lord on March 16. George studied at MIT and Gordon-Conwell before receiving his PhD from Boston University. He was ordained as a minister in the PC(USA) and held faculty positions in various institutions. He worked as Program Director of the ThM/PhD programs in Theological Studies and Church History at the Asia Graduate School of Theology, and editor of the Journal of Asian Evangelical Theology, among many other accomplishments before retirement. George is survived by his wife, Anne; their daughters, Ruth and Margaret (Meg); their son-in-law, Michael; and his brothers, Ronald and Robert. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Rev. Dr. Canon Gordon Brent Stiller (DMin ’07)
- Rev. Dr. Canon Gordon Brent Stiller died on January 13 at the age of 59, after a brief and mighty struggle with post-transplant lymphoma. A graduate of Regent College in Vancouver and Gordon-Conwell Seminary in Massachusetts, Brent was the Canon for Clergy Care for his diocese along with his duties at St. Peter & St. Paul’s. He was also an adjunct faculty member of Packer College in St. John’s. He loved deeply and was passionate about traveling to different countries. He is survived by his wife, Karen, his children, Holly, Thomas, and Erik, his daughter-in-law Nicoli, and his parents, David and Evelyn Stiller. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Donald Llewellyn Roberts (MABL ’04)
- Donald Llewellyn Roberts, age 92, passed away on January 3, 2023. Don graduated from Wheaton College, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, and the University of Cincinnati before going on to receive his doctorate from Drew University. He served as a pastor in Millgrove Bible Church (NY), Madeira Baptist Church (OH), Black Rock Church (CT), First Baptist Church (OR), and Glastonbury Community Church (CT). He also served in the U.S. Army Counterintelligence Corps in Japan during the Korean War. Don is survived by his wife, June, and three children, Ruth (Bruce) Tharaldson, David (Laurie) Roberts, and Carol Roberts. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Don Thomas Upton (MABL ’04)
- Don Thomas Upton passed away peacefully on January 27, 2023 after a short battle with lung cancer. After serving in the Marines for four years, Don moved to Charlotte and worked with IBM for 30 years as a field engineer. Upon retirement, Don returned to school and received degrees at both the University of North Carolina and Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. Don’s passion was reading and biblical research, which he used to teach Bible studies and Sunday school classes. He is survived by his wife, Jeannie Gooden Upton; sons, Brian (Janelle) and Darren (Susanna); grandchildren, Abigail, Gavin, James, Elizabeth, and Evelyn. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Lee B. Nichols (MDiv ’71)
- Lee B. Nichols passed away peacefully at home on Jan. 21st, 2023. He graduated from Wheaton College with a BA and served as a 2nd Lieutenant with the 35th Infantry in Vietnam. After being wounded in action in 1966, he was awarded the Purple Heart and the Bronze Star Medal with “V” device for his heroism as the platoon leader. Upon completing education, Lee worked in various human services positions in PA, OH, IN and NY. He retired from the Mohawk Valley Psychiatric Center in 2001 after 12 years and volunteered at Elmira Correctional Facility. He is survived by his wife, Monica, his sister, and several nieces and nephews. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Dr. Russell Spittler (BDiv ’58)
- Dr. Russel P. Spittler, one of the leading scholars in Pentecostal scholarship, passed into the arms of Jesus on Friday, January 20. Russell Paul Spittler was born on August 6, 1931, in Pittsburgh, PA. He received his bachelor’s degree from Florida Southern College in 1954, his MA from Wheaton College in 1957, his BD degree from Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in 1958, and his PhD from Harvard University in 1971. In addition to his prolific scholarship and significant contribution to Pentecostal studies, he also served as the Academic Dean of Southern California College (later Vanguard University) in 1967; Associate Dean at Fuller Theological Seminary in 1976; and later remained at Fuller as Professor of New Testament in 1985 before serving as Provost and Senior Vice President from 1995 to 2002, among many other accomplishments. He is survived by his wife, Roberta “Bobbie” Watson, and his family. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Rev. Bruce Sandy (MDiv ’77)
- Bruce Sandy, 71, passed peacefully on Jan. 6, 2023, at Hartford Hospital after a long illness. He was born on Nov. 8, 1951, in Worcester Massachusetts, and grew up in New England before attending Gordon Conwell and Andover Newton for his MDiv. He was employed by four churches in the Boston area and five churches in Connecticut; he also provided guidance for 47 years in the ministry. Bruce was a member of TABCON and ABCON; he was on the board of Camp and Conference, Ministry Counsel for the State of CT, and Pierce Baptist Home. He is survived by his sister Cathyann Bearthiaume; three nephews, David and John Bearthiaume, Aaron Hamscon; and two nieces Marina Peck and Carrie Bosch. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Margaret Knowlton (MTS ’75)
- Margaret (Hansen) Knowlton, 84, passed peacefully on January 17, 2023, at home whilst surrounded by her family. Born in Breslau, Germany, Margaret is best known as Imme by her family and friends. She pursued a degree in chemistry and biology at Gordon College before her time at Gordon-Conwell. Upon graduation, she held numerous positions at the Apolo & Lemm space programs, Tufts Medical School, some of Boston’s most prestigious hospitals, and the IRS. Margaret also served as the church organist for the First Baptist church and St. Johns Church in Peabody MA. She is survived by her husband, Thomas Ward Knowlton, with whom she shared 58 years of marriage; her daughter, Kelli, and her husband, Scott; and her son, Daniel, and his fiancé Amanda, among others in her family. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Rev. Norman Christopherson (MDiv ’68)
- Norman Christopherson, age 83, passed away at Granite VNA Hospice House on Friday, January 13th, 2023. Norman graduated from Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary with his MDiv in 1968. He worked as a pastor at South Merrimack Congregational Church and more recently at Immanuel Community Church of Concord. Norman loved coffee and to reminisce about growing up on the farm in North Dakota. Norman is survived by his wife, Bridget, his children, Kimberly and her husband Michael, Karin and her husband Darron, Erik and his wife Jessica; his brother, Ken, and his seven grandchildren. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Rev. James A. Selby (MDiv ’81)
- James Allen Selby, 69, died January 3rd, 2023, at his home in Overland Park, KS surrounded by loving family after a short battle with cancer. Upon his graduation from seminary, Jim pastored Winter Hill Baptist Church in Somerville, MA for four years before working at Christian academies in Kansas City and Lake Oswego, Oregon. He has published papers about classical Christian pedagogy and was a member of the International Society for the History of Rhetoric. Jim is survived by his wife, Elaine, his children, Andrew (Malea), Philip, Emily, and Kristin, his grandchildren, Dana, James, Kentania, Luke, John, Monica, and Paul, his mother, Beverly, his brother, Scott (Janie), his sister, Kathryn (Mark), his brother-in-law, Brad Dittman, his nieces, Marie (Tim) and Natasha, and nephew, Eric (Emma). A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Rev. James B. Eubanks (MDiv ’62)
- Rev. James Blair Eubanks left his earthly body on Wednesday, December 7, and finally went to be with his Lord Jesus at the age of 85. Jim pastored Brookville Baptist Church in Holbrook, MA for 31 years. As a minister, Jim loved reaching out to community members, playing horse and chess with young people, and taking groups to see the Celtics. After retiring and moving to Wareham, Jim was a very active and devoted congregant at Church in the Pines. Jim is survived by Emily Brooks Eubanks, his wife of 60 years, his daughter Karen and her husband Joel Gray, and his son Mark Eubanks, his sister Stella Eubanks, her daughter Christine and granddaughter Kristin. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Rev. James Kenneth Moelk (MDiv ’85)
- The Rev. James Kenneth Moelk, of Erie, formerly of Pittsburgh, went to be with his Lord on Monday, December 5, 2022 at the age of 69. After graduating from Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, he started his pastoral ministry at Westminster Presbyterian Church in Erie, PA. He was the founding co-pastor of Church of the Cross in Erie, where he served for over 20 years; after retirement, he was a part of Redeemer Evangelical Presbyterian Church. Jim enjoyed spending time with his grandchildren, doing carpentry, walking with his dogs, and most importantly continuing to grow in his faith and love for Christ. He is survived by his wife, Jaye Klein Moelk, his four children, Janel, James, Jocelyn, and Yolande, and his thirteen grandchildren. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Rev. Barry Ballard (MDiv ’90, DMin ’11)
- Barry Ballard went home to be with the Lord on Wednesday, November 30, 2022 at the age of 58. He loved Jesus and people and lived his life anchored in those two loves. Barry took his call to pastor the Wyalusing Presbyterian Church and served there faithfully for over 26 years; he loved the Wyalusing Presbyterian Church and her people. Barry is survived by his wife, Karen (MDiv ’89, DMin ’11), his daughter, Kirstyn, his son, Wesley, his mother, Sylvia Ballard, and a community that will best honor him by following his example of loving Jesus and loving people. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
William Franklin Harris (MATS ’86)
- William Franklin Harris passed into the presence of his Lord on Saturday, January 8, 2022 at the age of 82. Bill worked for the Overseas Missionary Fellowship for 20 years, serving as pastor to churches in Malaysia and Singapore and was fluent in the Malay and Tamil languages. He earned his Master’s degree at Gordon-Conwell and served as a pastor in Kingston Baptist Church, Kingston, Massachusetts. In 1995, he relocated to Tulsa, Oklahoma to begin a career as a substance abuse counselor. In 2003, he met his wife LaTricia Crawford and they were married on Valentine’s Day, Feb. 14, 2004 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Bill was an avid reader and chess player and he enjoyed studying U.S. History. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Matthew Michael Kantrowitz (MDiv ’86)
- Matthew Michael Kantrowitz went to be with the Lord that he loved on Wednesday, December 8, 2021. In his time on earth, Matt dedicated his life to ministering to the prisoners of ME, MA, and NH. By grace the Lord blessed Matt with a love for those men so he was able to proclaim the gospel to them. He worked as Chaplain at Maine State Prison for 18 years. After retiring from there, the Lord stirred up the hearts of churches and individuals all over New England to support Matt and his prison ministry. He was grateful for them and the Board Members who helped him establish Isaiah 61 Ministries as a 501(c)(3). Matt leaves behind his dearly beloved wife of 48 years, Christine, but only for a short while. He also leaves behind a daughter, Jessica, and a son, David. The memorial service will be postponed because of a rise in Covid cases. In the meantime, a website has been created for all to gather to remember Matt with comments or stories.
Rev. Robert E. Bell (BDiv ’54)
- Reverend Robert E. Bell, Sr., 94, entered into the presence of his Lord Jesus, Monday, November 8, 2021, at the Sussman House after a period of declining health. In 1950, he graduated at Gordon College in Wenham, Massachusetts, and in 1954 completed a master’s in divinity from Gordon Conwell Theological Seminary. Reverend Bell was ordained at First Baptist Church, Rockland, June 26, 1953. He was the founding pastor of High Street Baptist Church in Limestone, where he served from 1954 to 1958. He continued in pastoral ministry at a number of churches until his retirement from full-time ministry in 1993. His humility and warmth gave him the ability to make friends wherever he went.
Rev. A. Theodore Ekholm (MDiv ’52)
- Rev. Theodore “Ted” Ekholm went home to be with his Lord and Savior on Saturday, September 4, 2021. After graduating from seminary, he and his wife, Barbara, served the Lord in four Baptist Churches in Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Maine. “Pastor Ted” was a man who loved God, loved his wife and family, and loved people. His life was filled with many challenges and blessings, but he always gave glory to God.
Richard (Dick) L. Parker (BDiv ’59)
- Richard L. Parker, 89, of Penney Farms and formerly of St. Augustine, died Sunday, August 29, following an arduous two-week battle with Covid. With his surviving wife of 45 years, Jean (Rehmeyer Parker), Dick pastored churches in Maine, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania from the late 1950’s to the early 1970’s before launching a successful 35-year career as a fundraising consultant. He was a pastor at heart, and his genuine love for others ideally suited him to both professions. Dick and Jean shared a passion for small group ministry, and positively impacted countless people with their compassion, kindness, and wisdom. Their love for Jesus and other people bound their hearts in ministry and marriage. He is survived by his wife, Jean, 5 step-children, 15 grandchildren, and 12 great-grandchildren.
Rev. Robert Cloutier (MATS ’89, MDiv ’92)
- Rev. Robert Cloutier (Pastor Bob) of Hopkinton, went to meet his Lord on August 25, 2021 after a courageous eight-month battle with a rare form of Lymphoma. A pastor at Faith Community Church Hopkinton (formerly First Congregational Church of Hopkinton) for over 37 years, Bob’s life mission was to serve God by serving others, and he did so with compassion, love, kindness, and commitment. He truly was a beacon of the fruits of the Spirit, loved sharing the Gospel, and ministered to thousands in his lifetime.
Rev. Horace H. Stoddard (MDiv ’65)
- Rev. Horace H. Stoddard, 80, of Pine City, NY, passed away on June 1, 2021. Roland served at First Baptist Church (Lancaster, NY) and then Pine City Baptist Church for 33 years until his retirement. He was respected and loved by his congregations, his family, and American Baptist family. His willingness to look at situations with an open mind and ability to bring people together in consensus will be missed. He is survived by his wife, Ruth, their three children, and three grandchildren.
Rev. Brenda Holly Vautier (MDiv ’86)
- Rev. B. Holly Vautier passed from this life into God’s presence on Thursday, June 18, 2020. Together with her husband, Holly pastored churches in New York, Massachusetts, and Arizona. She was active in the church choir, praise team, teaching Bible studies, serving on several committees, and annually oversaw the Operation Christmas Child project for Kingman Presbyterian Church, AZ. Her bright demeanor, quick wit, and cheerful personality radiated her love for Christ and for people. She was admired for her spiritual maturity and solid faith.
Rev. Roland Francis Batchelder, Sr. (MDiv ’70)
- Rev. Roland Francis Batchelder, Sr. most recently of Whiting, New Jersey, went home to be with his Savior on May 13, 2021 surrounded by family singing the hymns he loved so dearly. Roland served in the Korean War and later worked with the Red Cross before hearing the call to serve in ministry. He graduated from Gordon-Conwell with a Master’s of Divinity and moved with his family to Wilton, Maine where, with the constant support of his wife, he established Calvary Hill Baptist Church and Christian School.
Timothy Ridolfi (MAR ’93)
- Tim passed on at age 67 on January 25, 2021 in Richmond, VA. He is survived by his brother Paul of Greensboro, North Carolina. Tim was a graduate of Trinity College of Florida and Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. He was a member of the Episcopal Church of the Good Shepherd.
Rev. John Rankin (MDiv ’84)
- John died of heart failure December 25, 2020. He was the President of the Theological Education Institute (TEI) which he founded in 1986. A brilliant man with multiple degrees, including a Masters in Divinity from GCTS and a Masters in Ethics and Public Policy from Harvard Divinity School, he was also an author of multiple books. He married his wife Nancy Jean Gordon on August 6, 1977, and had four children and four grandchildren.
Rev. Dr. Russel Hartley (BDiv ’64)
- Russel Henry “Russ” Hartley, 83, of Old Town, ME, went home to be with the Lord he loved, on Nov. 28, 2020. Russ and his wife Lorrie shepherded churches in Maine before Russ accepted the role of Chaplain at the New England Baptist Hospital, in Boston MA. After 15 years as a Chaplain, Russ returned to pastoral ministry, and served churches in New York and Maine.
Dr. Donald Gill (Honorary DDiv ’80)
- Donald H. Gill, 92, died November 12, 2020, in Gloucester, MA. Gill and his wife Beverly were married for almost 70 years. For the last 50 years, Don served churches in New England in collaboration with different denominations, both Protestant and Catholic. He was often found on the Gordon-Conwell campus, both as facilitator and participant, in gatherings of pastors.
Craig Lee Bensen (MDiv ’73, DMin ’93)
- The Rev. Dr. Craig Lee Bensen went to be with his Lord and Savior Jesus Christ unexpectedly at his home in the early hours of Sunday, November 8, 2020. He was 72 years old. Craig was impassioned with a lifelong vision to see the Kingdom of God made manifest and honored throughout Vermont. To that end, he was exceptionally gifted at building unity across denominational lines of Christian leaders with remarkable grace. His compassion and wit were surpassed only by his humility. A fuller obituary can be viewed here.
Robert James Vetter (MTS ’75)
Rev. Robert J.“Bob” Vetter entered the Lord’s presence Friday, November 6, after a long battle with metastatic melanoma. Bob, a widower, was married to his wife June by Gordon-Conwell President Ockenga. Together they started the Christian Singles Foundation on the North Shore, and also wrote a book on singleness. Later, Bob served in a variety of pastoral positions, was the CEO of the USA World Team Mission Office, and the Vice President of St. Joseph’s Foundation in Southern Pines.
Rev. Dr. Edward John Osei-Bonsu (MRE ’89, MDiv ’92, DMin ’93)
- Rev. Dr. Edward John Osei-Bonsu passed away in August, 2020, and was buried on November 21, 2020. He was the Senior Pastor of Lifeway Community Baptist Church in Accra, Ghana.
James M. Moran (MDiv ’79)
- Jim Moran passed away on Oct. 13, 2020 at the age of 69. He had recently retired as senior pastor of the Cranberry Community United Presbyterian Church in Cranberry Twp, PA, a suburb of Pittsburgh. He received his M.Div. at Gordon-Conwell in 1979 and his D.Min. from the Reformed Seminary in Jackson, MI.
John L. Good (MRE ’70)
- John L. Good III, 77, died peacefully on Oct. 18, 2020. He held a Master of Religious Education degree from Gordon-Conwell and an Honorary Doctorate from Endicott College. Jack married Susan on April 9, 1967. Jack had leadership roles on numerous boards and committees. He served as an adjunct faculty member at both Gordon College and North Shore Community College.
Rev. Dr. Richard P. Camp, Jr. (MDiv ’61, DDiv ’88)